Aigun, Treaty of

Aigun, Treaty of
   A Sino-Russian agreement negotiated between eastern Siberia’s governorgeneral, Nikolai Nikolaevich Muravev, and the regional Manchu governor, I-shan. The treaty ceded to the Russian Empire all lands north of the Amur River down to its confluence with the Ussuri River; allowed joint sovereignty by Russia and China over the lands east of the Ussuri; limited travel along the Amur, Ussuri, and Sungari Rivers to these two nations; and provided for trade between nationals living along these rivers.
   The treaty was a result of the “Far Eastern Policy” initiated by Russian Foreign Minister Aleksandr Mikhailovich Gorchakov in response to Anglo-French incursions into India and China in the 1850s. Muravev was given plenipotentiary powers to expand the empire’s borders and in the years leading up to the treaty began settling Cossacks and their families in the Amur River valley despite its being Chinese territory. When Muravev himself dramatically arrived aboard a gunboat at the Manchu garrison of Aigun, Governor I-shan initially refused his demands to sign the ready-made treaty, but several bluff cannonades forced him to change his mind.
   The Aigun Treaty was followed within weeks by the Treaty of Tientsin, negotiated by Admiral Evfimii Vasilevich Putiatin. Ignorant of Muravev’s treaty, Putiatin reproduced much of it in his own, although he also secured greater access to Chinese markets. In November 1860, the Russo-Chinese Convention of Peking con- firmed both treaties as well as formalized Russia’s annexation of the lands east of the Ussuri River. By such means Russia painlessly expanded its empire by 350,000 square miles - a territorial expansion equal to the size of France and Germany. Off with a bang, the “Far Eastern Policy” later culminated in Russia’s humiliation during in Russo-Japanese War.
    March, G. Patrick. Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific . Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996;
    Stephan, John J. The Russian Far East: A History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Aigun — (zh stp|s=瑷珲|t=璦琿|p=Àihún; Manchu: Aihūn hoton ) is a town of China in northern Manchuria, situated on the right bank of the Amur River. The Chinese name of the town, which literally means Bright Jade , is a transliteration of the original Manchu …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Aigun — The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East and northern China . Its provisions were confirmed by the Beijing Treaty of 1860.The Russian representative Nikolay Muravyov and the… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Nerchinsk — The Amur basin. Nerchinsk is part way up the Shilka. The Stanovoy Mountains are along the northern edge of the Amur basin. The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Russian: Нерчинский договор; Chinese: 尼布楚條約; pinyin: Níbùchǔ Tiáoyuē) was the first treaty …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Kyakhta — The Treaty of Kyakhta (sometimes known as the Treaty of Kiakhta) ( ru. Кяхтинский договор; zh cp|c=布連斯奇條約/恰克圖條約|p=Bùliánsīqí/Qiàkètú tiáoyuē) was one of several treaties between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire in the early modern period,… …   Wikipedia

  • Unequal Treaty — ▪ Chinese history       in Chinese history, any of a series of treaties in which China was forced to concede many of its territorial and sovereignty rights. They were negotiated during the 19th and early 20th centuries between China and foreign… …   Universalium

  • Traite d'Aigun — Traité d Aigun Le Traité d Aigun est un traité entre la Chine et la Russie impériale, qui fixa les frontières contemporaines de l Extrême Orient russe, représente la révision des clauses du traité de Nertchinsk au profit de la Russie. Ses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Traité d'Aigun — Le Traité d Aigun est un traité entre la Chine et la Russie impériale, qui fixa les frontières contemporaines de l Extrême Orient russe, représente la révision des clauses du traité de Nertchinsk au profit de la Russie. Ses dispositions furent… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • List of China-related topics 123-L — The following is a breakdown of the list of China related topics.See also: List of China related topics M Z NOTOC 0 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L0 .hk .mo .tw 123 Democratic Alliance 1421 theory 14K Triad 2008 Summer Olympics 2008 Summer… …   Wikipedia

  • Timeline of Chinese history — History of China ANCIENT …   Wikipedia

  • Diplomacy — For the textual analysis of historic documents, see Diplomatics. For other uses, see Diplomacy (disambiguation). The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization. Diplomacy (from… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”