Agadir Crisis

Agadir Crisis
   A Great Power crisis aggravating the tense atmosphere of European diplomacy leading to World War I. In the early part of the twentieth century, German’s leaders viewed their country as increasingly “encircled” following a number of international crises. These fears increased following the Agadir, or Second Moroccan, Crisis of 1911. Specifically, Berlin resented French military intervention in Morocco in 1911, a move that amounted in effect to the establishment of a French protectorate in Morocco and ran counter to the Algeciras Conference of 1906 and to the Franco- German agreement on Morocco of 1909. In response to the French “dash for Fez” in the spring of 1911, Germany wanted to assert its status as a Great Power, achieve compensation for France’s territorial gains, and possibly weaken the Entente Cordiale in the process. State Secretary for Foreign Affairs Alfred von Kiderlen-Wächter acted forcefully and was rewarded with an enthusiastic response in Germany. Germany’s military leaders advocated a war, but Berlin instead dispatched the gun-boat Panther to the Moroccan port of Agadir to intimidate the French, an event that marked the beginning of the crisis. Berlin demanded the French Congo as compensation for the extension of French influence in Morocco, but France received diplomatic support from Britain so their Germany’s action only strengthened rather weakened the links between the Entente partners. This was demonstrated by British Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, in his famous “Mansion House Speech” of July 21, 1911 in which he threatened to fight on France’s side against Germany if necessary.
   Thus, the crisis produced another German diplomatic defeat despite the fact that Berlin secured a small part of the French Congo as compensation. In Berlin, the defeat resulted in a bellicose anti-French and a particularly anti-British mood. Kiderlen-Wächter did not seek war in 1911, but he was willing to threaten it for diplomatic gains. But in the aftermath of the crisis, demands for a preventive war became widespread. Public enthusiasm for the army became more pronounced, especially as a result of the propaganda work of the German Army League, founded in January 1912. Agadir also had serious international consequences. In France, public mood turned distinctly anti-German. Because Britain and Germany were compensated for French gains in Morocco, Italy decided to annex Libya and Tripolitania in November 1911. Thereafter, enfeebled Turkey became an easy target for the Balkan League during the Balkan Wars of 1912/13. Italy became a less reliable alliance partner for Germany and Austria-Hungary, while the newly strengthened Serbia and Montenegro posed a more serious threat to the Dual Monarchy. The crisis gave rise to the Anglo-French naval agreement, discussed against the backdrop of the events of 1911 and signed in February 1913. Germany’s “encirclement” was fast becoming reality.
   See also <>; <>; <>; <>.
    Barraclough, Geoffrey. From Agadir to Armageddon: Anatomy of a Crisis. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1982;
    Joll, James, and Martel, Gordon. The Origins of the First World War , 3rd ed. London: Longman, 2006;
    Rich, Norman. Friedrich von Holstein. Policy and Diplomacy in the Era of Bismarck and Wilhelm II . 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Agadir Crisis — [ SMS Panther , used in a famous example of gunboat diplomacy.] The Agadir Crisis, also called the Second Moroccan Crisis, was the international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther , to the Moroccan port of Agadir on… …   Wikipedia

  • Crisis (desambiguación) — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El término crisis, entendido como un periodo o situación de dificultades o cambios bruscos, se puede referir a: Contenido 1 Economía 1.1 2008 2009 1.2 Véase también …   Wikipedia Español

  • Crisis diplomática — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Crisis diplomática es una situación grave de las relaciones internacionales, más importante que un conflicto diplomático, puesto que amenaza seriamente la paz y puede llevar a la guerra. Puede resolverse mediante las …   Wikipedia Español

  • Agadir — es una provincia y ciudad de Marruecos Limita al norte con las provincias de Essaouira y Marrakech, al este con la provincia de Ouarzazate , al sureste con la provincia de TaTa, al sur con la provincia de Tiznit y al oeste con el océano Atlántico …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Crisis de Agadir — El barco cañonero alemán SMS Panther La crisis de Agadir o Segunda Crisis Marroquí (1911) estuvo a punto de desencadenar una guerra entre Francia y Alemania, lo que podría haber ocasionado la Primera Guerra Mundial, sólo que tres años antes. El… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Agadir — أغادير Agadir …   Wikipedia Español

  • Agadir — /ah gah dear /, n. a seaport in SW Morocco: destroyed by earthquake in 1960; new town rebuilt S of original site. 1,220,600. * * * Seaport city (pop., 1994: 155,240), southwestern Morocco on the Atlantic coast. It was occupied in the 16th century …   Universalium

  • Agadir Incident —       event involving a German attempt to challenge French rights in Morocco by sending the gunboat Panther to Agadir in July 1911. The action incited the Second Moroccan Crisis (see Moroccan crises). * * * …   Universalium

  • Agadir — /ægəˈdɪə/ (say aguh dear) noun a seaport in south western Morocco; international crisis in 1911 over territorial dispute between Germany and France …   Australian-English dictionary

  • Moroccan Crisis — could refer to: The First Moroccan Crisis, also called the Tangier Crisis was brought about by the visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II to Tangier in Morocco on March 31, 1905 and his subsequent speech in which he favored Moroccan independence. This was a… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”