The region between the Black and Caspian Seas and a territorial bone of contention among the Ottoman, Persian, and Russian Empires for centuries. During the nineteenth century, the Caucasus came increasingly under Russian dominance. Georgia was annexed to Russia in 1801; Baku and other parts of Azerbaijan followed in 1813; Persian Armenia and the remainder of Azerbaijan in 1828. Russian expansion into the Western Caucasus thereafter came at direct expense to the Ottoman Empire, and after the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 the Treaty of Adrianople transferred Circassia to the Russian Empire. Between 1830 and 1859, the Muslim peoples of the region waged a jihad against Russian rule, known as the Murid Wars. After the deployment of ever larger and better equipped Russian armies brought the local tribes to surrender, the region remained under Russian control until the passing of the Soviet Union in 1991.
   See also <>; <>.
    Hosking, Geoffrey. Russia, People and Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997;
    Rywkin, Michael. Russian Colonial Expansion to 1917. London: Mansell, 1988;
    Seton-Watson, Hugh. The Russian Empire, 1801-1917. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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