- Solferino, Battle of
- (1859)The last engagement of the second War of Italian Independence. It was fought in Lombardy between an Austrian army and a Franco-Piedmontese army and resulted in the annexation of most of Lombardy by Piedmont-Sardinia, thus contributing to the unification of Italy.After its defeat at the Battle of Magenta on June 4, the Austrian army of about 120,000 men had retreated eastward, and Emperor Francis Joseph had arrived to dismiss General Count Franz von Gyulai and take personal command. The Franco-Piedmontese army, of approximately equal size, under the command of Napoleon III of France and Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont-Sardinia, pursued the Austrians. Neither side had accurate information about the other’s troop movements, and on June 24, they unexpectedly clashed, in and around Solferino, four miles southeast of Castiglione della Stiviere in Lombardy at a time when the French expected to engage only the Austrian rear guard, and the Austrians expected to engage only the French advance units. The battle developed in a confused and piecemeal fashion until midday. After extremely costly fighting, the French broke the Austrian center in mid-afternoon. Smaller actions, including a vigorous delaying action by the Austrian general Ludwig von Benedek, continued until dark, leaving the French and Piedmontese too exhausted to pursue the defeated Austrians.The Austrians lost 14,000 men killed and wounded and more than 8,000 missing or prisoners; the Franco-Piedmontese lost 15,000 killed and wounded and more than 2,000 missing or prisoners. These heavy casualties contributed to Napoleon III’s decision to seek the truce with Austria that effectively ended the Second War of Italian Independence. The bloodshed also inspired Henri Dunant to lead the movement to establish the International Red Cross.See also <
>; < >.FURTHER READING:Di Scala, Spencer M. Italy: From Revolution to Republic, 1700 to the Present . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998;Hearder, Harry. Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento, 1790–1870. New York: Longman, 1983.GUENTHER KRONENBITTER
Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.