Installed by the Congress of Vienna after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis, Comte de Provence, became king of France as Louis XVIII. He was born at Versailles on November 17, 1755, to dauphin Louis, son of Louis XV, and Maria Josepha of Saxony. In June 1791, he had fled France and become the leader of the émigrés, seeking help of European monarchs in the royal conspiracy against the French Revolution. He assumed the title of regent of France in 1792 after Louis XVI was guillotined and Louis XVII died in prison, and he styled himself as Louis XVIII with a manifesto of restoration of monarchy, aristocracy, and the Church. As king, he would have liked to rule with absolute power, but he knew well that return to the prerevolutionary ancien régime was impossible. Nationalism and democratic ideas had taken roots. The Royal Charter of 1814 retained religious toleration, equality before law, the Bank of France, and the Napoleonic Code. Although Royal prerogative was asserted, monarchy was to be constitutional. When Napoleon entered Paris in March 1815, Louis XVIII had to flee for the duration of the Hundred Days. After the Battle of Waterloo, he again returned to France “in the baggage of the allies” to rule France from July 1815. The ultras, more Royalist than the king, controlled the Chamber of Deputies after the elections. The ultras pursued a program of repressive measures against political opponents and settled many scores with old enemies from the Revolutionary days. Alarmed at the “White Terror,” Louis XVIII dissolved the Chamber in September, and liberals got an upper hand. The moderate ministries undertook the task of reconstruction in an admirable way. The ultras were seething with anger at the policy of moderation and got their chance after the heir apparent Duke of Berri, nephew of Louis XVIII, was assassinated. The events of neighboring Spain in 1820 had generated antirevolutionary fear in France, so the ultras secured control of the Chamber of Deputies in November 1820 and instituted a reactionary program. The ministry of Comte de Villèle was a victory of aristocracy over bourgeoisie and ancien régime over the Revolutionary era. It sent troops to quell the Spanish revolutionaries, muzzle the press, create a ministry of Church affairs, and public instruction. In the elections of February–March 1824, the ultras returned with a thumping majority and the liberal opposition was in a minority. In foreign policy Louis deferred to the judgment and diplomatic skills of Talleyrand who set France in a course of rehabilitation as a legitimate Great Power. He died on September 16, 1824, at Paris and Charles X continued the reactionary tendency.
   See also <>; <>; <>.
    Lever, E. Louis XVIII. Paris: Fayard, 1988;
    Macaulay, Thomas B. Napoleon and the Restoration of the Bourbons. New York: Columbia University Press, New Edition, 1977;
    Mansel, Philip. Louis XVIII. New York: Sutton Publishing, 1999.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Louis XVIII — de France Louis XVIII Roi de France …   Wikipédia en Français

  • LOUIS XVIII — (1755 1824) roi de France (1814 1815 et 1815 1824) Né à Versailles, troisième fils du dauphin Louis et de Marie Josèphe de Saxe, Louis Stanislas Xavier reçut le titre de comte de Provence. Intelligent et ambitieux, il se composa le personnage du… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Louis XVIII — (Louis Xavier Stanislas) 1755 1824, king of France 1814 15, 1815 24 (brother of Louis XVI). * * * orig. Louis Stanislas Xavier, count de Provence born Nov. 17, 1755, Versailles, France died Sept. 16, 1824, Paris King of France by title from 1795… …   Universalium

  • Louis XVIII — (1755 1824)    king of France    King of France from 1814 to 1824, Louis XVIII was born at Versailles, the grandson of louis XV and brother to louis XVI and the count of Artois (later charles x). He was first known as the count of Provence and as …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Louis XVIII De France — Louis XVIII Roi de France …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Louis XVIII de France — Louis XVIII Portrait de Louis XVIII Titre Prétendant aux trônes de France et de Navarre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Louis xviii de france — Louis XVIII Roi de France …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Louis XVIII — (Louis Xavier Stanislas) 1755 1824, king of France 1814 15, 1815 24 (brother of Louis XVI) …   Useful english dictionary

  • Louis XVIII of France — Infobox French Royalty|monarch name=Louis XVIII title=King of France and Navarre caption= reign= De jure 8 June 1795 – 16 September 1824 De facto 6 April 1814 – 20 March 1815; 8 July 1815 – 16 September 1824 coronation= full name=Louis Stanislas… …   Wikipedia

  • LOUIS XVIII —    brother of Louis XVI., and called Monsieur during his brother s reign, flew from Paris and joined the Emigrants along with his brother, Count d Artois, and took up arms, which he was compelled to forego, to wander from one foreign Court to… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”