London Straits Convention

London Straits Convention
   An international agreement signed by Austria, France, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire, Prussia, and Russia, which reaffirmed the principle that the Ottoman Straits - the Bosporus and Dardanelles - were to be closed to all warships of foreign powers when the Ottoman Empire was at peace. Anglo-Russian agreement over the straits, which had been a matter of contention since the signing of the Treaty of Inkiar Skelessi in 1833, was brought about due to mutual concerns over the resumption of hostilities between the Ottomans and their Egyptian vassal in 1839. The resolution of outstanding differences was largely due to Anglo-Russian diplomatic cooperation and Anglo-Ottoman military cooperation, which prevented the Ottoman Empire from suffering yet another near collapse at the hands of their Egyptian vassal, Mehmet Ali. On British insistence, the Russians did not negotiate a renewal of the Treaty of Inkiar Skelessi. Instead, both powers - joined by the Austrians, Prussians, and Turks - signed the London Convention for the Pacification of the Levant on July 15, 1840, and the London Straits Convention on July 13, 1841. The former prefigured the ultimate settlement to this phase of the problems in the Near East by offering Mehmet Ali hereditary title as governor of Egypt, providing he abandon his Syrian holdings, return the Ottoman fleet - which had defected to Alexandria in the summer of 1838 - and continue to acknowledge the suzerainty of and pay tribute to the Ottoman Sultan. The London Straits Convention grew out of a desire on the part of the British and Russian governments to come to satisfactory arrangement between themselves - with the cooperation of the Porte and other great powers - as to the status of the Straits.
   The convention was an outgrowth of the desire by the Great Powers to restore a semblance of balance to Near Eastern relations in the wake of a series of crises that had threatened the very existence of the Ottoman Empire. The regulations regarding the straits laid down in it essentially remained in force during the remainder of the life of the Ottoman Empire, and its terms remained in force until the end of World War I. The Treaty of Paris (1856), which ended the Crimean War, reaffirmed the Convention while also neutralizing the Black Sea.
   See also <>; <>.
    Anderson, M. S. The Eastern Question 1774–1923 . London: Macmillan, 1966;
    Hale, William. Turkish Foreign Policy 1774–2000 . London: Frank Cass, 2000;
    Hurewitz, J. C., ed. The Diplomacy of the Near and Middle East, A Documentary Record: 1535–1914 . Vol. 1. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand and Co., 1956;
    Jelavich, Barbara. A Century of Russian Foreign Policy 1814–1914 . Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1964;
    Karsh, Efraim, and Inari Karsh. Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East 1789–1923 . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • London Straits Convention — In the London Straits Convention concluded on July 13th, 1841 between the Great Powers of Europe at the time Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia the ancient rule of the Ottoman Empire was re established by closing the Turkish… …   Wikipedia

  • London Straits Convention — Der Dardanellen Vertrag wurde am 13. Juli 1841 zwischen den fünf europäischen Großmächten Russland, Großbritannien, Frankreich, Österreich und Preußen sowie dem Osmanischen Reich geschlossen. Vorgeschichte 1807 wurde eine Durchfahrt durch die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Straits Question — Recurrent controversy in the 19th–20th centuries over the passage of warships through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits between the Black Sea and the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Both straits were in Turkish territory, but when Russia gained …   Universalium

  • Turkish Straits — The term Turkish Straits ( tr. Türk Boğazları) in northwestern Turkey refers to the two narrow straits that connect the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean arm of the Mediterranean Sea on the one side and the Black Sea on the other. They are… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of London — The Treaty of London may refer to: Treaty of London (1359), which ceded western France to England, repudiated by the Estates General in Paris on 19 May 1359 Treaty of London (1518), a non aggression pact between the major European nations Treaty… …   Wikipedia

  • Full House (Fairport Convention album) — Infobox Album | Name = Full House Type = Album Artist = Fairport Convention Released = July 1970 Recorded = February April 1970 Genre = Rock Length = 35:08 Label = Island Records ILPS 9130 (original UK) A M (original US) Hannibal (1991 rerelease) …   Wikipedia

  • Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits — Not to be confused with Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt. The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits was a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus Straits and the… …   Wikipedia

  • List of songs about London — This is a list of songs about London. Instrumental pieces are tagged with an uppercase [I] , or a lowercase [i] for quasi instrumental including non lyrics voice samples.Included are::* Songs titled after London, or a location or feature of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Dardanelles — Coordinates: 40°12′N 26°24′E / 40.2°N 26.4°E / 40.2; 26.4 …   Wikipedia

  • Eastern Question — The Eastern Question , in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire. The expression does not apply to any one particular problem, but instead includes a variety of issues raised… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”