- List, Friedrich
- (1789–1846)A German economist of formative impact, Friedrich List established himself as an expert for administrative matters in Württemberg, but was forced into exile to the United States. Having returned to Saxony in 1832, he advocated the extension of the railway system in Germany and developed a theory of protection that stressed national welfare, including tariff protection for the transition to an industrial economy. The establishment of the Zollverein in 1834, a customs union between the majorities of the German states, was due largely to his enthusiasm. List maintained that a nation’s prosperity depended on its productive forces, including scientific discoveries, advances in technology and transport, educational facilities, an efficient administration, and some kind of self-government. Germany, List argued, needed for economic progress an extended territory from the North Sea to the Mediterranean and an expansion of commerce. The German national spirit after unification was receptive to List’s writing. His ideas became the economic foundation of unified Germany.FURTHER READING:Henderson, William Otto. Friedrich List. Economist and Visionary, 1789–1846. London: Franc Cass, 1983.MARTIN MOLL
Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.