A creation of the Hindi Dogra dynasty and of the British government of India, Kashmir comprises three separate regions of the Valley of Kashmir, predominantly Muslim and Kashmiri-speaking, Jammu; predominantly Hindu-speaking Dogri; and Ladakh, populated mostly by Ladakhi-speaking Buddhists. They existed as separate states, although Kashmir became part of the empire of Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) of the Punjab. After the death of Ranjit Singh, the Sikhs became weakened and after a series of wars, the British took over the Punjab. On March 16, 1846, with the signing of the Treaty of Amritsar, Kashmir was sold by the British to the Dogra chief, Gulab Sigh of Jammu (1792–1857), and he entered Srinagar on November 9, 1846.
   Kashmir became a state with an overwhelming majority of Muslim citizens governed by a Hindu maharaja who ruled it as an independent state with regard to internal affairs because the British did not appoint a resident to exercise greater political control until 1884. With the Sikh population in the Punjab still hostile and with strained relations with Afghanistan, Kashmir was seen as a frontline state and a valuable ally. With a border shared with Tibet, Chinese Turkistan, Russian Turkistan, and Afghanistan, it was a strategic territory. In addition, the British hoped to share in the trade with Central Asia. When Russia captured Tashkent in 1865, and Samarkand and Bukhara in 1868, there was a recrudescence of the Great Game in which the British once again become obsessed for the safety of India and the fear of a Russian invasion of India through Afghanistan. During the viceroyalty of Lord Lytton (1876–1880), Britain adopted a “forward policy,” which determined to establish the defensive line for India on the northern heights of the Hindu Kush. Kashmir again became a frontline state. It was not until 1895 that the British and the Russians agreed to the international border between Russia and Afghanistan.
   Gulab Singh was survived by his only surviving son Ranbir Sigh (1856–1885) who offered military and financial support to the British during the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and the state of Kashmir as a refuge, especially to British women. Pratap Singh (1885–1925) and Hari Singh (1925–1947) succeeded Ranbir. Hari Singh acceded to India rather than Pakistan in spite of the fact that Kashmir was more than 75 percent Muslim and in some areas, more than 90 percent.
   See also <>; <>; <>.
    Huttenback, Robert A. Kashmir and the British Raj, 1847–1947. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004;
    Lawrence, James. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kashmir — Исполнитель Led Zeppelin Альбом Physical Graffiti Дата выпуска 24 февраля 1975 года Дата записи …   Википедия

  • KASHMIR — KASHMIR, region in S. central Asia. The association of Kashmir with Jews was first alluded to by the 11th century Muslim   scholar Al Bīrūnī in his India Book : In former times the inhabitants of Kashmir used to allow one or two foreigners to… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Kashmir — [kash′mir, kash mir′] 1. region in S Asia, between Afghanistan & Tibet: since 1846, part of Jammu and Kashmir 2. JAMMU AND KASHMIR 3. Vale of valley of the Jhelum River, in W Kashmir Kashmirian adj., n …   English World dictionary

  • kashmir — /ka ʃmir/, it. / kaʃmir/ s.m. [dal nome della regione del Kashmīr, dove originariamente veniva prodotta]. (tess.) [tessuto morbido e leggero che si ricava dal pelo delle capre del Kashm¦¯r] ▶◀ cachemire …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • Kashmir — from Skt. Kashypamara land of Kashyap, said to be the name of a renowned sage. Related: Kashmiri …   Etymology dictionary

  • Kashmir — m DEFINICIJA v. Kašmir …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Kashmir — This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. For other meanings, see Kashmir (disambiguation), or Cashmere. Kashmir (Balti: کشمیر; Poonchi/Chibhali: کشمیر; Dogri: कश्मीर; Kashmiri: कॅशीर, کٔشِیر; Shina: کشمیر; Uyghur:… …   Wikipedia

  • Kashmir — Karte (2004) Talmarg (Indien) Kaschmir (Devanagari: कश्मीर, Kaśmīr, Kashmir) ist ein ehemaliger Fürstenstaat im …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • kashmir — /kazh mear, kash /, n. cashmere. * * * Region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. It is bounded to the northeast and east by China, to the south by India, to the west by Pakistan, and to the northwest by Afghanistan. The land is… …   Universalium

  • Kashmir — /kash mear, kazh , kash mear , kazh /, n. 1. Also, Cashmere. a former princely state in SW Asia, adjacent to India, Pakistan, Sinkiang, and Tibet: sovereignty in dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947. 2. Official name, Jammu and Kashmir.… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”