July Revolution

July Revolution
   A revolutionary wave of the 1830s that swept over Europe beginning in France, ending the reign of Charles X, the successor of Bourbon ruler Louis XVIII. Charles, unlike his predecessor, believed in an absolute monarchy and tried to revive many features of the ancien régime . His measures, like giving compensation to émigrés and the removal of many liberal provisions of the constitution, angered the bourgeoisie. In July 1830, he suspended the liberty of press, dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, and restricted the electoral franchise. An insurrection broke out. Its leaders were from the parliamentary opposition and backed by lower bourgeoisie. After three days of fighting, Charles abdicated in favor of his 10-year-old grandson, the count of Chambord, and then fled to Britain, but he was succeeded by Louis Philippe after the invitation from the Chamber of Deputies. Louis Philippe agreed to rule as a constitutional monarch. Although the July Revolution did not bring lasting political change, its effects were felt in other parts of Europe, including Belgium, Italy, the German states, Poland, and Switzerland, where conservatives trembled and liberals took heart.
   See also <>.
    Lucas-Dubreton, J. The Restoration and the July Monarchy. New York: Putnam, 1929;
    Merriman, John M. 1830 in France. New York: Viewpoints, 1975;
    Pinkney, David H. The French Revolution of 1830. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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