- Hohenlinden, Battle of
- (1800)The last victory of Republican French armies over the Austrians in Germany. Fought in the forests 16 miles east of Munich, Bavaria, on December 3 between General Moreau with 56,000 men and 61,000 Austro-Bavarian troops led by 18-yearold Archduke John. The armistice was terminated by the French on November 28, but John won the opening action at Ampfing on December 1. On December 3, the Allied army advanced in four columns from Haag through the forest toward Hohenlinden, where Moreau was concentrating his army to counterattack as the allied columns emerged from the woodland. At dawn as snow fell, the central Allied column opened fire on French positions, but the side columns were three hours behind, marching along woodland tracks. The fighting raged along the main road, but it was stalemated around the entrance to the Haag Forest until about 11 A.M ., when Feldmarschalleutnant Kollowrat’s center column had to give ground as it ran out of reserves. The two Allied northern columns had arrived, however, and they engaged the French left wing under General Grenier, but they were forced to withdraw as the advance of the French center threatened their line of retreat. In the south, Feldmarschalleutnant Riesch’s column was even more delayed and was halted around St. Christoph by two French divisions under General Decaen. The French center, led by Generals Ney and Grouchy, steadily advanced down the forest road as Generals Grenier and Richepanse advanced along the northern tracks, throwing the retreating allied army into increasing disorder. With losses of 12,000 troops, John hastily withdrew at 6 P.M . and an armistice was concluded at Steyr on December 25.See also <
>.FURTHER READING:Arnold, J. Marengo and Hohenlinden. Lexington, VA: Napoleon Books, 1999;Schneider, G. Hohenlinden: Die vergessene Schlacht. Munich: Kurt Vowinckel, 2000.DAVID HOLLINS
Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.