Herero Revolt

Herero Revolt
   The bloodiest and most protracted colonial war in German Southwest Africa, the Herero Revolt resulted in the death of two-thirds of the Herero and half the Nama peoples. The origins of the Herero Revolt date to the mid-1890s when pastoralist tribes in Southwest Africa, now Namibia, came under pressure from business interests and growing numbers of German settlers who wanted their cattle, land, and labor either for railroad construction or the creation of white-owned ranches and farms. This pressure intensified in 1897 as a result of the outbreak of a Rinderpest epidemic that decimated the region’s cattle population and led the German colonial administration to seize tribal lands and relocate the inhabitants onto reservations. Although billed as a means of containing the Rinderpest epidemic, the administration’s sale of seized property made it clear that in reality the creation of the reservation system was little more than an effort to provide cheap land and cattle to settlers. The resultant African hostility over the loss of their property was soon compounded by rapidly increasing debt incurred in an effort to rebuild their lost herds, perpetually low wages on white owned farms, and a growing awareness of racial inequalities within the legal system.
   This long-simmering resentment finally erupted into violence in January 1904, when the Herero, under the command of Chief Samuel Maherero, rose up and attacked and killed more than 100 German settlers near the town of Okahandja. Thereafter, superior numbers and the inexperience of their opponents enabled the Herero to roam at will until the June 1904 arrival of 15,000 German reinforcements under the command of General Lothar von Trotha, an experienced officer who had seen service in German East Africa and China’s Boxer Rebellion. Shortly after his arrival in the colony, von Trotha engaged and defeated the main Herero force at the Waterberg River in August 1904, driving the survivors into the desert where many died of starvation. Two months later a new uprising by the Nama broke out in the southern portion of the colony. Although their traditional rivalry prevented the Nama and the surviving Herero from joining forces, during the next several years both tribes fought a running guerilla war against the German colonial forces. Determined to suppress both rebellions, von Trotha unleashed a genocidal reprisal campaign that quickly decimated both the Herero and Nama peoples, eventually provoking a public outcry that led to both his recall to Berlin in 1906 and the Dernburg reforms that unfolded the next year.
   See also <>, <>.
    Bley, Helmut. South-West Africa Under German Rule, 1894–1914. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1971;
    Bridgman, Jon. The Revolt of the Hereros. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981;
    Drechsler, Horst. “ Let us Die Fighting: ” The Struggle of the Herero and the Nama against German Imperialism (1884–1915). London: Zed Press, 1982;
    Hull, Isabel V. “The Military Campaign in Southwest Africa, 1904–1907.” Bulletin of the German Historical Institute 37 (2005): 39–45.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Herero people — Herero Three Herero women. Total population 240,000 Regions with significant populations …   Wikipedia

  • Herero and Namaqua Genocide — The Herero and Namaqua Genocide occurred in German South West Africa (modern day Namibia) from 1904 until 1907, during the scramble for Africa. It is thought to be the first genocide of the 20th century. [cite book |title=The Holocaust:… …   Wikipedia

  • German Southwest Africa —    The largest of the German colonial possessions in Africa, approximately three times the size of Germany itself. The initial German acquisition of the territory was almost solely the result of the efforts of Frans Lüderitz and Heinrich… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Trotha, Adrian Dietrich Lothar von — (1848–1920)    A commander of German colonial troops who is most noted for his defeat of the Herero Revolt in German Southwest Africa. Von Trotha had joined the Prussian army at 17, served previously in the Austro Prussian War and the Franco… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Maji-Maji Rebellion — (1905–1907)    A revolt in German East Africa that was brutally suppressed by the colonial authorities. Together with the equally brutal German response to the Herero Revolt in South West Africa, the suppression of the Maji Maji Rebellion helped… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • German Empire — This article is about the unified German monarchy existing from 1871 to 1918. For Germany before 1806, see Holy Roman Empire. For Germany between 1918 and 1933, see Weimar Republic. For Germany between 1933 and 1945, see Nazi Germany. For German… …   Wikipedia

  • Southern Africa — Introduction       southernmost region of the African continent, comprising the countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The island nation of Madagascar is excluded… …   Universalium

  • History of Africa — Pre Colonial African States …   Wikipedia

  • Samuel Maharero — (1856 d. 14 March, 1923) was a chief of the Herero people in German South West Africa (today Namibia) during their revolts and in connection with the events surrounding the Herero genocide. Life Maharero was son to Kamaharero (or Maharero ), an… …   Wikipedia

  • Scramble for Africa — For the book by Thomas Pakenham, see Thomas Pakenham (historian)#The Scramble for Africa. For information on the colonization of Africa prior to the 1880s, including Carthaginian and early European colonization, see Colonization of Africa. The… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”