Garibaldi, Giuseppe

Garibaldi, Giuseppe
   An Italian patriot, soldier, adventurer, revolutionary, and politician instrumental in the unification of Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi was born in Nice in 1807 in what was then the kingdom of Sardinia. Garibaldi joined Young Italy, a patriotic society, in 1833, and became a follower of nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini. The French Revolutionary Wars had brought the Italian peninsula reforms, giving Italians a taste of republicanism. The return of absolutist governments after the French Empire ’s 1814 demise prompted the Risorgimento, a revolutionary movement. Secret nationalist societies formed and unsuccessful revolts flared throughout the peninsula. Garibaldi participated in a failed nationalist insurrection in 1834. He barely escaped arrest and execution, fleeing to Marseilles and then Brazil. During his 12 years in South America (1836–1848), Garibaldi met his first wife, Anita, who became his comrade-in-arms, and won fame fighting for the province of Rio Grande do Sul, then in revolt against the Brazilian government. He became a member of its navy, operating as a pirate. Garibaldi gained military leadership experience as a guerrilla in Uruguay, which was fighting Argentina for independence. The Revolutions of 1848, a liberal nationalist movement in Europe, saw mostly unsuccessful uprisings throughout the Italian peninsula against its foreign rulers. Sicily rebelled against its Bourbon king, and anti-Austrian riots ensued in the north. Garibaldi offered his services to the Sardinian king, leader of the Italian independence movement. Mazzini established a Roman Republic against Franco-Austrian troops sent to restore the pope. He summoned Garibaldi to help defend the Republic. Garibaldi’s forces were driven from Rome in 1849; during the retreat, Anita died.
   Several revolutionaries went into exile, including Garibaldi. He worked in New York making candles, leaving to become the skipper of cargo ships. In 1854, Garibaldi returned to the Italian peninsula after Count Cavour, Sardinia’s prime minister, granted his consent. Garibaldi retired to Caprera, living as a farmer before accepting a commission in the Sardinian army. Sardinia joined the Crimean War in 1855 to gain French support to expel the Austrians for Italian independence. By 1859, victories at Magenta and Solferino had forced Austria to cede Lombardy, but Venice and Rome remained under foreign control. Napoleon III of France sought peace with Austria without consulting Sardinia and annexed Savoy and Nice as payment for assistance. Tuscany, Romagna, Modena, and Parma opted for annexation to Sardinia.
   Garibaldi mounted an invasion of the Italian peninsula via Sicily. He resigned his commission and called for “a million rifles and men.” About 1,089 volunteers, known as “Red Shirts,” rallied to Garibaldi’s call. Most of them were young professionals, journalists, lawyers, artists, and intellectuals. With his army, Garibaldi invaded Sicily and Naples, driving out the Bourbon dynasty. Garibaldi became temporary dictator and continued marching north until halted by Sardinian troops. Garibaldi resigned his command to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, which annexed Sicily and Naples to create Italy. In 1861, Italy became a nation-state under Victor Emmanuel II. Rome remained protected by France while under papal rule. Garibaldi led two unsuccessful attacks against Rome in the 1860s and later accepted a position in the French army during the Franco-Prussian war to “aid the cause of International Republicanism.” In 1870, French troops withdrew from Rome for war with Prussia. After France lost, Italian forces entered the Papal States, annexing them into Italy. In 1874, Garibaldi became deputy for Rome in parliament. He retired with a government pension to Caprera, where he died in 1882.
   See also <>.
    Garibaldi, Giuseppe. My Life. Translated by Stephen Parkin. London: Hesperus Press, 2004;
    Ridley, Jasper. Garibaldi. London: Constable, 1974;
    Smith, Denis Mack. Garibaldi: A Great Life in Brief. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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  • Garibaldi, Giuseppe — born July 4, 1807, Nice, French Empire died June 2, 1882, Caprera, Italy Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. He came under the influence of Giuseppe Mazzini in 1834, took part in a failed mutiny intended to provoke a republican… …   Universalium

  • Garibaldi, Giuseppe — (1807–1882)    Born in Nice to a sea captain father, the young Garibaldi was a professional revolutionary. He took part in the Mazzinian uprising against the Piedmontese monarchy in 1834 and, following its suppression, was condemned to death for… …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • Garibaldi, Giuseppe — ► (1807 82) Militar y político italiano. En 1848 embarcó para Europa. Al llegar a su país, el Comité de Defensa de Milán le confió la organización de un cuerpo de voluntarios. Derrotó a los franceses en el primer ataque de estos contra Roma. Al… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Garibaldi,Giuseppe — Gar·i·bal·di (găr ə bôlʹdē, gä rē bälʹdē), Giuseppe. 1807 1882. Italian general and nationalist who led 1,000 volunteers in the capture of Sicily and Naples (1860). His conquest led to the formation of the kingdom of Italy (1861). * * * …   Universalium

  • Garibaldi, Giuseppe —  (1807–1882) Italian leader; played a central role in national unification …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi — «Garibaldi» redirige aquí. Para otras acepciones, véase Garibaldi (desambiguación). Giuseppe Garibaldi Participó en Unificación de Italia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi — Garibaldi redirects here, for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation). Infobox Person name = Giuseppe Garibaldi caption = Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1866. birth date = July 4, 1807 birth place = Nizza, First French Empire death date = death date …   Wikipedia

  • Garibaldi — Giuseppe Garibaldi um 1866 Giuseppe Garibaldi (* 4. Juli 1807 in Nizza; † 2. Juni 1882 auf Caprera) war ein berühmter Guerillakämpfer und einer der populärsten italienischen Protagonisten des Risorgimento, der italienischen Einigungsbewegung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Garibaldi (disambiguation) — Garibaldi may refer to: People * Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian revolutionary * Anita Garibaldi, Giuseppe Garibaldi s wife * Giuseppe Garibaldi Jr., Giuseppe Garibaldi s son who fought in the Mexican Revolution of 1910 * Giuseppe Garibaldi II,… …   Wikipedia

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