Franco-Italian Convention

Franco-Italian Convention
   The completion of an entente began in 1900. Since the period of “Risorgimento” in the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian nationalist politician, had claimed North Africa for the nation of Italy. At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the fate of Tripoli was discussed. Britain encouraged Italy to consider acquiring Tripoli as a colony and France ideally to occupy Tunis. This arrangement was considered favorable to ensure that the status quo in the Mediterranean be maintained. But Italian imperial ambitions grew after Britain and France expanded their respective empires in North Africa. France began to rule Tunis as a protectorate in 1881, and Britain occupied Egypt in 1882. Italy became increasingly worried about French expansion in North Africa and saw the acquisition of Tripoli as a necessity to provide safety and defense. Suspicions of French colonial ambitions persisted. An entente was agreed on with France in 1900, although the terms were ratified only in 1902. France was allowed to gain predominance in Morocco without Italy’s intervention, and Italy was granted a similar guarantee by France in Tripoli and Cyrenaica. Italy began a series of “peaceful penetrations” soon after. In 1902, France and Italy then agreed that each would maintain neutrality, not only in the event of direct of indirect aggression by a third party but also if one or the other of them “as a result of direct provocation, should find itself compelled, in defense of its honor or security, to take the initiative of a declaration of war.”
   In Africa, Italy faced strong opposition from Turkey with regard to Tripoli, yet invaded it in 1911, and finally possessed it by virtue of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1912. In Europe the 1902 agreement, which remained officially secret until 1918, made Italy’s membership in the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary altogether worthless.
   See also <>; <>.
    Hayes, Carlton J. H. A Political and Social History of Modern Europe. New York: Macmillan, 1926;
    Langer, William H. The Diplomacy of Imperialism, 1890-1902. New York: Afred A. Knopf, 1968;
    Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Master in Europe, 1848-1918. Oxford: Clarendon, 1954.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Franco-Spanish Agreement — (1904)    Signed on October 3, 1904, between the French and Spanish governments, the Franco Spanish Agreement supplemented the Entente Cordiale established between Britain and France only six months earlier. It clarified the respective spheres of …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Italian unification — (Italian: il Risorgimento , or The Resurgence ) was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century.There is a lack of consensus on the exact dates for… …   Wikipedia

  • Franco Battiato — Infobox Musical artist Name = Franco Battiato Img capt = Img size = Landscape = Background = solo singer Birth name = Born = Birth date and age|1945|3|23|mf=y Origin = Riposto, Sicily, Italy Occupation = Musician, filmmaker, painter Genre = Easy… …   Wikipedia

  • Franco Harris — Infobox NFLretired caption=Statue of Harris at the Pittsburgh International Airport. The statue replicates the shoestring catch Harris made in what would become known as the Immaculate Reception. position=Running back number=32, 34… …   Wikipedia

  • Italian Socialist Party — Infobox Italian former political party name english = Italian Socialist Party foundation = 1892 dissolution = 1994 newspaper = Avanti! leaders = Filippo Turati, Pietro Nenni, Sandro Pertini, Francesco De Martino, Giacomo Mancini, Bettino Craxi… …   Wikipedia

  • ITALIAN LITERATURE — Influence of the Bible As in other European cultures, the Bible became known to the Italian literary and cultural world through the Latin Vulgate, which was extensively studied in medieval times and, to a lesser extent, in the humanist period of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods — The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (abbrev. CISG) [United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna, 11 April 1980, S.Treaty Document Number 98 9 (1984), UN Document… …   Wikipedia

  • September Convention — The September Convention was a treaty, signed on 15 September 1864, between the Italian government and Napoleon III, under which: * Napoleon III agreed to withdraw all French troops from Rome within two years. * The Italian government guaranteed… …   Wikipedia

  • Timeline of Italian unification — The Italian unification Timeline is as follows:*1850 Garibaldi moves to New York City after the Pope takes control of Rome. **August 24: Venice falls to Austrian forces that have crushed the rebellion in Venetia and other northern Italian states… …   Wikipedia

  • Geneva Convention — (1864)    The Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, known as the Geneva Convention, had as its goals the protection of the vulnerable in wartime and the prevention of unnecessary… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”