Charles X, King of France

Charles X, King of France
   King of France from 1824 to 1830 and the personification of the dissolute life and reactionary politics for which the late Bourbon dynasty was caricatured. Charles fled to Edinburgh with the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 and returned to France in 1814 as leader of the ultraroyalists. He promptly fell in with clerical forces and authorized a series of penalties for irreligious behavior, which was merely the first of a series of measures that ultimately alienated all shades of political opinion. His Four Ordinances of St. Cloud provoked the July Revolution of 1830, and after three days of street –fighting, Charles was forced to abdicate and take refuge in England. His time on the throne being otherwise a waste of time and space, his most lasting legacy to France was his initiation of the military expedition against Algeria in 1830 to distract attention from his manifold failures at home.
    Cobban, Alfred. A History of Modern France. 3 vols. New York: Braziller, 1965.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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