The home of the Khmer Empire from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries and after the seventeenth century the object of rival Siamese and Vietnamese claims until the penetration of Indochina by France in the 1850s. Cambodia became a French protectorate in 1863. The protectorate retained limited Cambodian autonomy along with traditional administrative structures yet privatized land ownership, reformed the tax system, and encouraged commerce. Only in 1897 was the Cambodian king stripped of all power and his authority transferred to ministers who met at the pleasure of the French resident. With French aid Cambodia was able to recover three lost provinces from Siam in 1907.
   See also <>.
    Chandler, David. A History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1983.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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