Berlin, Congress of

Berlin, Congress of
   A meeting called by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to revise the Treaty of San Stefano, the 1878 Berlin conference as the first large international conference of the era of new imperialism. In the aftermath of the Ottoman Empire’s defeat by Russia in 1878, the treaty provided for a new order in European and Asiatic Turkey. Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania were extended and a new state, Bulgaria, was to emerge out of the Ottoman provinces north and south of the Balkan Mountains from the Danube to the Aegean and from the Albanian mountains to the Black Sea. Britain and Austria-Hungary agreed that the changes to European Turkey would damage their economic and strategic interests and give a preponderant power to Russia. The Treaty of Paris had established that matters pertaining to the Ottoman Empire’s integrity was for the joint cognizance of all the European powers, and so the Concert of Europe met to decide its fate.
   Representatives of the European Powers and the Ottoman Empire met in the Radziwill Palace, Berlin, on June 13, 1878 under Bismarck’s chairmanship. But the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Salisbury, his Foreign Secretary, had already determined the new balance of power in secret conventions. The convention with Russia was signed on May 30, and in it Britain allowed Russia to retain southern Bessarabia from the Ottoman vassal State of Romania, and Kars, Ardahan, and Batum on the Asian side of the Black Sea. In exchange, Russia agreed to reduce the size of Bulgaria.
   In Asia, Disraeli worried about the Russians establishing a foothold in Armenia and moving across Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf and beyond to India. Britain agreed to Russia retaining Kars, Ardahan, and Batum only after deciding to acquire a base - as it turned out, Disraeli selected Cyprus - in which to station an army to launch against any future Russian incursions against Ottoman Asia. Although the policy of territorial aggrandizement had been muted in 1876 against a weak Porte, it was now linked to maintaining the order established by the Anglo-Russian Convention. Although the strategic order had been determined by the British, Russian, and Ottoman governments, the delegates at Berlin had a number of other questions to determine. The Congress, which lasted from June 13 to July 13, decided that Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania would be completely independent. Bulgaria became a self-governing principality, subject to the Porte, under Alexander of Battenberg. Not to be outdone, Austria-Hungary was assigned the occupation and administration of the volatile Ottoman province of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The British government offered leave to its French and Italian counterparts to pursue their ambitions in Tunis and Tripoli, an offer the French took up within four years, and the Italians in 1911.
   See also <>; <>; <>.
    Medlicott, W. N. The Congress of Berlin and After. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1963;
    Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe. 1848-1918. Oxford: Clarendon, 1954.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BERLIN, CONGRESS OF — BERLIN, CONGRESS OF, gathering of the great European powers in 1878 to settle problems concerning the Balkans and Near East arising after the war between Russia and Turkey in 1877. Held between June 13 and July 13, 1878, it was attended by… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Berlin, Congress of — (June 13–July 13, 1878) Diplomatic meeting of the major European powers at which the Treaty of Berlin replaced the Treaty of San Stefano. Dominated by Otto von Bismarck, the congress solved an international crisis by revising the peace settlement …   Universalium

  • Berlin — • Capital of the German Empire and of the Kingdom of Prussia Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Berlin     Berlin     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • berlin — /beuhr lin , berr lin/, n. 1. a large, four wheeled, closed carriage hung between two perches and having two interior seats. 2. Auto. berline. 3. (sometimes cap.) See Berlin wool. [1725 35; after BERLIN, Germany; the carriage was allegedly… …   Universalium

  • Berlin — /beuhr lin / for 1, 2; /berr lin/ for 3, 4; for 2 also Ger. /berdd leen /, n. 1. Irving, born 1888, U.S. songwriter. 2. the capital of Germany, in the NE part: constitutes a state. 3,121,000; 341 sq. mi. (883 sq. km.). Formerly (1948 90) divided… …   Universalium

  • congress — n. /kong gris/; v. /keuhn gres , keuhng /, n. 1. (cap.) a. the national legislative body of the U.S., consisting of the Senate, or upper house, and the House of Representatives, or lower house, as a continuous institution. b. this body as it… …   Universalium

  • Berlin Conference of 1954 — See also Berlin Congress (1878, re Balkans) and Berlin Conference (1884 85, re Africa). The Berlin Conference of 1954 was a meeting of the Big Four foreign ministers of the United States (John Foster Dulles), Britain (Anthony Eden), France… …   Wikipedia

  • Congress Radio — was a clandestine and underground radio station, which operated for about three months during the Quit India Movement of 1942, a movement launched by Gandhi against the British Raj for independence of India. Congress Radio was the broadcasting… …   Wikipedia

  • Berlin — Berlin …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Berlin Brandenburg Airport — Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg Willy Brandt (under construction) …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”