Irregular Ottoman cavalrymen noted for their horsemanship, lack of discipline, and cruelty. Sometimes referred to as the “Spahis of the Orient,” they were usually Albanians, Circassians, or Kurds. The Anglo-French forces sought to employ them during the Crimean War but had little success in developing military discipline among them. In 1876, bashi-bazouks massacred 12,000 Christians in putting down a revolt against Ottoman rule. The “Bulgarian atrocities” provoked international outrage, particularly among pan-Slavists in Russia and in Britain in the attacks of William Gladstone against the government of Benjamin Disraeli for its support of Turkey.
   See also <>; <>; <>.
    Goodwin, Jason. Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire. London: Chatto & Windus, 1998.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914. 2014.

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